# Quantum computing. Quantum computing is a field of… | by Sonah S Tiju | IEEE MEC SB | November 2022

Quantum computing is a field of computing that primarily focuses on the development of computing technology based on the principles of quantum theory.

Simply put, it’s the study of how to use phenomena in quantum physics to create new ways of computing. The main goal of this technology is to clarify the nature and character of energy and matter at quantum levels. Quantum computing can be understood by learning the quantum laws of physics by which very high processing power is achieved and the ability will be developed to multiple states which together will help to perform the tasks in terms of parallel feasible combinations.

Quantum computing uses qubits, the basic unit of quantum information. But what exactly is a qubit?** **We can say that it is the quantum mechanical analogue of a classic bit. In classical computing, information is encoded in bits, where each bit can have the value zero or one. A qubit, also known as a quantum bit, is any bit made from a quantum system, such as an electron or a photon. Just like conventional bits, a qubit must have two distinct states: a “0” representative and a “1” representative. It can also exist in superposition states, be subject to incompatible measurements, and even be entangled with other quantum bits. The ability to harness the powers of superposition, interference, and entanglement makes qubits fundamentally different and far more powerful than conventional bits.

To build quantum computers and other quantum information technologies, we need quantum objects that will act like qubits. Scientists have learned to harness and control many physical systems to act like qubits. This allows us to match the requirements of different quantum technologies to the advantage of each type of qubit. The power of quantum computers grows exponentially with more qubits.

The main advantage of quantum computing is that it can perform any task much faster compared to the classical computer. Generally, although atoms change rapidly in the case of traditional computing, they change much faster in quantum computing. In quantum computing, since the qubit is the conventional superposition state, we have the advantage of exponential acceleration which results in a quantum leap in handling a number of calculations in addition to performing d classical algorithms. Whether performing very complex mathematical calculations, searching the Internet, modeling the national economy, forecasting the weather, etc., scientific computing places a huge strain on the capacity of computers, even fastest and most powerful. The difficulty is not that microprocessors are too slow, but that conventional computers are inherently insufficient in this respect. This is where the role of quantum computing becomes very important.

The next most important question would be what prevents us from using its potential – its drawbacks. Disadvantages of quantum computing include breaking current encryption systems, which could open the door to data theft if organizations are not ready to transition to post-quantum cryptography-based algorithms. Without adequate security, many of the promised benefits of quantum computing are doomed. Another disadvantage is that the technology needed to implement a quantum computer is not readily available at present because the coherent electron, essential for the operation of quantum computers, is damaged as soon as it is affected. by its environment. Although research to address this problem continues, efforts to identify and implement a solution to this problem have not reached the desired levels.

In 2020, quantum computers have come one step closer to a reality, and in 2021, development and research have continued to advance the reality of introducing effective and efficient quantum computers in the near future. There is currently a race between researchers and organizations to develop quantum computing as quickly as possible. We can therefore be certain that quantum computers could definitely become a reality within five to ten years. Quantum computing is undoubtedly the future of computing.